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Seminar:Rogelio Saenz, Rene Zenteno, Ying Huang--The Demography of Race and E

上海大学社会学院系列讲座

2018年第36讲 总第555

题目:美国种族和族裔的人口学&墨西哥-美国迁移的新时代:2006年后的经验和非法移民的瓦解&祖父母的财富与孙子女的体重指数轨迹

主讲人:

Rogelio Sáenz, 德克萨斯大学圣安东尼奥分校公共政策学院院长;

René Zenteno, 德克萨斯大学圣安东尼奥分校(UTSA)的人口学教授;

黄盈,德克萨斯大学圣安东尼奥分校人口学系的助理教授

主持人:李贞,上海大学亚洲人口研究中心讲师

讲座时间:2018111日,星期四,10:00am-12:00pm

讲座地点:东区2号楼社会学院516

主办单位:上海大学亚洲人口研究中心暨人口研究所

 

Topic 1: The Demography of Race and Ethnicity in the United States
Rogelio Sáenz, Ph.D.
University of Texas at San Antonio
rogelio.saenz@utsa.edu
One of the most permanent features of the United States is racial and ethnic stratification. While
many immigrant groups have been integrated into the different dimensions of American life,
others have remained relatively marginalized. The road toward inclusion is particularly difficult
for groups that initially gained entrance to the United States through involuntary means, e.g.,
warfare and conquest, and for those with more pronounced racial and cultural distinctions
compared to the dominant white group.
The unique experience of these and other minority groups has major implications for the United
States population. Race and ethnicity are important dimensions in understanding the demography
of the United States, for racial and ethnic groups vary tremendously with respect to population
composition, population processes, and their life chances and access to opportunity structures.
The inequality of groups in American society along racial and ethnic lines has important
implications for the future of the United States because of the major demographic
transformations already underway in this country. Between 2016 and 2060, non-Hispanic whites
are projected to decline by approximately 10 percent decreasing from 198.0 million to 178.9
million, with the percentage share of whites of the overall population falling from 61.3 percent to
44.3 percent. The Asian population is projected to double in size, and the Latino population to
nearly double between 2016 and 2060.
The presentation focuses on the demography of racial and ethnic groups and consists of four
main sections. First, the conceptualization, substantive concerns, and relevance of race and
ethnicity to demography are examined. Second, we provide an overview of theoretical
perspectives that have been used to understand racial and ethnic groups. Third, the
methodological issues related to the study of race and ethnicity are discussed along with key
empirical findings. Finally, directions for future research are discussed, and a few research areas
that merit attention are highlighted.
Topic 2: The New Era of Mexico-U.S. migration: The post 2006 Experience and the Collapse of
Undocumented Migration
René Zenteno, Ph.D.
Twelve years ago Mexico-U.S. migration entered a new era. In 2006 the number of migrants
coming north started to decline as the construction industry went into a swoon. A few years later
net migration hit the zero point. An enforcement campaign that produced more than 2 million
removals from the United States also contributed, as did conditions in Mexico. The result is a
decade of reduced northbound flows, reduced circularity, and an increase of return migration to
Mexico. The work of understanding the causes let alone the effects has just begun. This paper
develops a composite picture of this distinctive new chapter using multiple sources of available
information in combination with unpublished data from the Border Survey of Mexican Migrants.
It also reviews findings from prior studies that have examined the causes of this transformation
as well as its impacts in both countries. Finally, I identify key issues and highlight future
research directions.
Topic 3: Grandparents’ Wealth and the Body Mass Index Trajectories of Grandchildren
Ying Huang, Ph.D.
The association between childhood obesity and family socioeconomic status is wellestablished. However, little is known about how grandparental wealth—a measure of historical
socioeconomic advantage—is associated with grandchildren’s initial body mass index (BMI) in
early childhood and its subsequent growth patterns. Guided by life course perspective as well as
the cumulative (dis)advantage theory, this analysis investigates the link between grandparents’
wealth ranking and grandchildren’s BMI growth trajectories from childhood to early adulthood.
Analyses are based on longitudinal data from the U.S. Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID)
and the supplemental studies of Child Development Supplement (CDS) and Transition to
Adulthood (TA). Using three-level growth curve models, I track the BMI trajectories of a
nationally representative sample of individuals from childhood to early adulthood. I find that
lower grandparental wealth ranking is not only associated with slightly higher initial BMI of
their grandchildren, it is also associated with accelerated BMI growth trajectories. Results
highlight the role of wealth as a historical socioeconomic (dis)advantage in accounting for the
obesity disparities between white and black children in the current generation

 

讲座主题1:美国种族和族裔的人口学

主讲人:Rogelio Sáenz, Ph.D. 德克萨斯大学圣安东尼奥分校公共政策学院院长

主讲人简介:Rogelio Sáenz是德克萨斯大学圣安东尼奥分校公共政策学院院长和Mark G. Yudof教授,。他同时也是新罕布什尔大学卡西公共政策学院的政策研究员。 Sáenz在人口学、拉丁美裔研究、种族和民族关系、不平等、移民、公共政策、社会正义和人权等领域撰写了大量文章。

他是《美国拉美裔人:多元化与变革》(Polity 出版社)和《拉丁裔问题:参考手册》(ABC-CLIO出版社)的合著者。 他还是《国际种族和民族人口手册》(Springer出版社)以及《美国的拉美裔:改变美国的面貌》(Springer出版社)的合编者。

Sáenz同时撰写关于当前人口,社会,种族,经济和政治问题的专栏文章,他的文章被奥斯汀美国政治家,巴尔的摩太阳报,达拉斯晨报,埃尔帕索时报,休斯敦纪事报,纽约时报,里奥格兰德卫报,圣安东尼奥新闻等多家报纸采用。他还为西班牙文报纸《奥斯汀美国政治家》的“Ahora Sí” 专栏撰写文章。

讲座简介:

美国最持久的特征之一是种族和族裔的分层。尽管许多移民群体已经融入美国生活的不同维度,但其他一些群体仍然相对边缘化。对于那些最初通过战争和征服等非自愿的方式进入美国的群体,以及那些与占主导地位的白人群体相比在种族和文化上差异更明显的群体来说,通往融合的道路尤其艰难。

这些移民群体和其他少数群体的独特经历对美国人口具有重大影响。种族和族裔是了解美国人口的重要维度,因为不同的种族和族裔群体在人口构成、人口过程、生活机会和机会结构方面存在巨大差异。由于美国正在进行重大的人口转变,美国社会中各种族和族裔群体的不平等对美国的未来具有重要意义。人口预测显示,从2016年到2060年,非西班牙裔白人人口将下降约10%,从1.98亿减少到1.789亿,总人口中白人的比例将从61.3%下降到44.3%。亚裔人口规模预测将翻一番,拉丁裔人口将在2016年至2060年间增加近一倍。

本讲座主要介绍种族和族裔群体的人口学,包括四个主要部分。 首先,讨论种族和族裔的概念化、关注的实质性问题和与人口学的相关性。其次,提供用于理解种族和族裔群体的理论视角。 第三,讨论与种族和族裔研究相关的方法论问题以及关键的实证研究结果。 最后,讨论未来研究的方向,并指出一些值得关注的研究领域。

 

讲座主题2:墨西哥-美国迁移的新时代:2006年后的经验和非法移民的瓦解

主讲人:René Zenteno, Ph.D 德克萨斯大学圣安东尼奥分校(UTSA)的人口学教授

主讲人简介:René Zenteno是德克萨斯大学圣安东尼奥分校(UTSA)的人口学教授。他是UTSA负责国际合作的第一位副教务长,德克萨斯大学系统和墨西哥国家科学和技术委员会联合项目ConTex的创始执行官。 Zenteno在社会和人口变化、国际移民和社会不平等领域发表了大量文章,他主要关注墨西哥、美国-墨西哥迁移和墨西哥移民在美国社会的融入问题。Zenteno曾在Proceedings of the National Academic of Sciences, Social Problems, Journal of Development Economics, Latin American Research Review, International Migration Review, The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, Journal of Marriage and the Family, American Economic Journal: Applied Economics, Estudios Demográficos y Urbanos, Frontera Norte以及其他学术期刊上发表文章。

Zenteno2010年至2012年间担任了墨西哥内政部副部长。他在编写、谈判和颁布2011年墨西哥移民法方面发挥了重要作用,并且帮助通过了“难民和补充保护法”。这些法律文件为墨西哥移民和难民提供了基本权利保障,不论他们是否拥有移民身份。

讲座简介:

十二年前,墨西哥-美国移民进入了一个新时代。2006年,随着建筑业的低迷,前往北方的移民人数开始下降。 几年后,净迁移量达到了零点。同墨西哥一样,一项从美国清除超过200百万人的强制执法活动也起到促进作用。结果十年来,北向人口流动减少,循环流动减少,向墨西哥回迁的人口增加。 理解这一现象的原因和影响的研究工作才刚刚开始。本文将多种来源的公开信息与墨西哥移民边境调查中未发表的数据相结合,综合描绘了墨西哥-美国迁移史上这一独特的新篇章。同时,文章回顾了关于这一转变的原因及其对两国的影响的相关研究结果。 最后,作者指出了关键问题和未来的研究方向。

 

讲座主题3:祖父母的财富与孙子女的体重指数轨迹

主讲人:Ying Huang, Ph.D

主讲人简介:黄盈是德克萨斯大学圣安东尼奥分校人口学系的助理教授。她于纽约州立大学奥尔巴尼分校社会学系获得博士学位。黄盈的研究兴趣包括城市社会学、社会分层和人口健康。她主要关注社会、空间和政策的互动关系如何在健康、经济和其他福祉领域生产和再生产种族和民族不平等。她目前的项目研究社会劣势代际传递的健康后果。黄盈的文章已在American Sociological Review, Demography和其他学术期刊上发表。

讲座简介:

研究证实,儿童肥胖与家庭社会经济地位相关。然而,关于祖父母财富(一种历史社会经济优势的测量指标)与孙子女童年早期的初始体重指数(BMI)及其随后的增长模式的联系,我们所知甚少。在生命历程视角和累积优势/劣势理论的指导下,本研究考察祖父母的财富地位与孙子女从童年到成年早期的BMI增长轨迹之间的联系。分析基于美国收入动态追踪调查(PSID)数据以及儿童发育(CDS)和成年(Transition to Adulthood)两个补充调查。通过使用三层生长曲线模型,本研究追踪了具有代表性全国样本中个体从童年到成年早期的的BMI轨迹。研究发现,较低的祖父母财富地位不仅与其孙子孙女的初始BMI略高相关,而且还与BMI增长轨迹加速相关。研究结果强调了财富作为历史社会经济优(劣)势在解释当代白人和黑人儿童肥胖差异方面所起的作用。